Charge on hydrolysis products and precipitation of metal hydroxides are both controlled by pH. Drawdown from Calibration Cylinder (mL/min) 1,440 min/day ÷ … 18H2O] as the clarifying agent. Knowledge of the product used allows a refinement of coagulant dosage calculations. Lime sludges are dense and will tend to settle, however, it is recommended that 10 mgL- 1of an alumina coagulant be added to capture the lime fines. Dosage calculation formulas. Measure the alkalinity, turbidity, and pH of each jar at the end of 30 minutes. h�b``�b``Jd �_�P#�0p4 �IA1�)/k����~?��>1��q�t�Ŕџ�!��� ��5c��k}����8�q@����6���k |FN� �% Now insert the paddle of the jar testing apparatus inside the beakers and start it. *When alum solution is added to water, the molecules dissociate to yield  SO4^2- and Al3+. Take 1000 ml of given sample in 6 beakers. Take 1000 ml of given sample in 6 beakers. Now insert the paddle of the jar testing apparatus inside the beakers and start it. Weight is the patients weight, expressed in kg or lb. A lot of helpful information here. * The optimum value of coagulant generally lies between 8 to 10 for normal water from rivers. Procedure : 1. Coagulant concentration 500 ml. To determine the optimum dosage of coagulant to remove small or charged particles present inside water by using “Alum” as coagulant. The optimal dosing condition of the coagulant can be determined 2. Dosage Calculations After completing this chapter, you should be able to: • Solve one-step pharmaceutical dosage calculations. Now allow the beakers to settle down for 10 minutes. �������m]-���T۷�-F��Y�����L|~�U��|AH��K^���O��3~�K���{"Ny��,�K= ʻO{�lOZ��IJ�D��[?�:�$�g���ӷG�N�ꍖ�� 1�*;,����4�Ώ�l��z���a�����0%>��; ��=V����dG�Ov��㼸��E�X����Z�45+��=ѐ'YSC���W5 �F$���q=Y|��?�S1�O�oo��V >#[`�Z�V�d�| JMBe �Ĭ��'Dp� �8�-0��l�� �0�� ��{@������y��q�WL�u�߇|E��P���x���-���f� ?�=��#p�/6P)�P)��@�%�(`Ȩ \���. Coagulant Name. The pounds formula can be used to solve water math problems including milligrams per liter to pounds per day, feed rate, chlorine dosage, percent strength, and dilution calculations. Now adjust the speed such that the paddles rotate at 40 rpm/min for a time of 9 minutes. Make an observation as of which of the 6 beakers is most clearer. Plots of turbidity versus coagulant dose for Water A with alum, Water B with ferric chloride and Water B with alum all showed a continual decrease in turbidity with an increase in coagulant dose. Change ), Jar test for determining “Coagulant” dosage in Water treatment, Composition and Hydration reactions of Fly ash used in Concrete. ( Log Out /  Dosage : 0.02 g 500 ml. In bulk water treatment, the jar tests are repeated with varied alum dose until the ideal dose is found. Dosages are generally established on the basis of bench-scale tests and occasionally by full-scale tests, especially if … Initially maintain a speed such that the paddles rotate at an angular velocity of 100 rpm for a time of 1 minute. InitialFinal x 100 Initial. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Do not combine HEMLIBRA vials of different concentrations in a single injection. The dosage of alum, which represents least turbidity, gives Optimum Coagulant Dosage (O.C.D.). 40 g/l. A high dose, in addition to adding costs, can cause the sediment to remain in the filtrate, a dangerous condition according to the standards, while a sub-adequate dose of coagulants can result in the re-ducing the required quality and acceptable performance of the coagulation process. The hydrolysis products possess a positive charge at pH values below iso-electric point of the metal hydroxide. It’s important to refer to the technical data sheets of the product. 8. 10 0 obj <> endobj 38 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<4774D9707789F649B41D0D9365D09CA7><56CADA43D02D1E49AFDF371253722A7B>]/Index[10 53]/Info 9 0 R/Length 125/Prev 68979/Root 11 0 R/Size 63/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream The formula for the pounds calculations is: Feed Rate (lbs/day) = dosage (parts per million) × Flow Rate (million gallons per day) × 8.34 lbs/gal Plot a graph with alum dosage along x-axis and turbidity along y-axis. The dosage rate required is a function of the phosphorous removal required. Depending on the type of coagulant used, the dosage will vary. Taste and odor compounds may also be removed by this mechanism. Also measure the turbidity of each beaker using a turbidity meter and tabulate your results. 3. It is very important that you input an accurate result; Dosage is the prescribed amount of drug in mg per kg of body weight. Plot a graph “Settled turbidity” Vs “Coagulant dosage”. In practice, an 80-90% removal rate is achieved at coagulant dosage rates between 50 and 200 mg/l. Turbidity Removal : 25.624.6 x 100 25.6. Specific gravity is incorporated as part of the solution strength (% w/v). ( Log Out /  0.12 g 500 ml = 40 mg / L = 240 mg / L Turbidity Removal : = InitialFinal x 100 Initial. Documents Similar To Lab Jar Test Calculation Sample. Specific Gravity. 4. Repeat steps 1-10 with higher dose of alum, if necessary. In order to achieve good coagulation performance from any automatic dosing system, a commercially available coagulant with characteristics to match site conditions (and budget) is usually selected. When an inorganic coagulant is used, the addition of pH-adjusting chemicals prior to the coagulant establishes the proper pH environment for the primary coagulant. Coagulant Strength Convert to lb/gal. Enter average daily water flow in million gallon terms. f����?��rZV�y6r��~�{GyA�o�h��F�Oț�M�#d���������j��z�}�:����u�eQ�s_����/�O�S��i���yA��I+�� ]���������x�ݸ�������z~�7��gX�`�x�uiƳ����~������e��_� Different coagulants also have an optimum pH range over which they are effective and pH buffering may be required depending on the coagulant and water chemistry. Click Here. Example Calculations of Chlorine Dosage Note: Percent sodium hypochlorite (%NaOCl) is based on weight per volume (w/v) in the equations below. The rapid mix helps to disperse the coagulant throughout each container Sample Coagulant Dosage Calculator Usage on the Tetra Tech (RTW) Model The following is a sample calculation of using the Coagulant Dosage Calculator for quickly determining coagulant dosages when conducting jar testing to determine the feasibility of using ferric sulfate to remove 0.60 mg/L of molybdenum in a water treatment process. Find the pH of the sample and adjust it to 6 to 8.5. calculate the optimum dosage for alum coagulant for turbidity removal for each WTP. • Set up a series of ratios and proportions to solve a single dosage calculation. For example - enter 3.765 for 3,765,000 gallons or .045 for 45,000 gallons. This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking. Calculated dosage volume may vary depending on the choice of vial combination and volume drawn from each vial. 9. Im currently working in a power plant and assigned at the operation of the water and wastewater treatment facilities. That is the reason why we have step of “slow mixing” in the present experiment. The amount of waste water that passes for 4 hours is 18000 liters. A detailed explanation of the charge removal can be found in the web which will be based on two basic definitions “Stern potential“ and “Zeta Potential“. endstream endobj startxref h�bbd``b`:$�@�3 �qH Q !�H��a@B����6 �� �D\�@��ĵ lN@�g ��/�d� The calculated amounts of added coagulant (aluminium sulphate) for the four samples were 0.50 ml, 0.57 ml, 0.65 Determination of coagulant and chlorine dose is time-consuming. Charge neutralisation in water can occur very rapidly therefore mixing is important for effective treatment of turbid water. The data sheets will mention the density as well as the percentage of alum (or other) in each product. This trend is a sign that sweep flocculation is the main coagulation mechanism occurring. A range of concentrations from 10, 20, 30, and 40 of alum was used separa tely for each water for example, 1.335. Ill be needing your help with regards to dosing rate calculation of coagulant and flocculant from jar test result. 6. For the dose of polyelectrolyte from the facility of 0.22 g/m 3 and 0.05% solution concentration, i.e. If you want to calculate the dose of a medication, you need to use the following equation: dose = weight * dosage. 1. 1. Uploaded by. DOSING CALCULATION -RO.xls. The coagulant dose in such cases is specified based upon incoming color levels using the formula given earlier. Now add 1 ml, 2 ml, 4 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 12 ml of alum respectively in each one of the beakers. Equation 1A: Average Dose - Chlorine dosage (mg/L) measured as Cl2: Eq. 1. Therefore which will be using a chemical which dissociates as soon as it added to water and helps in the process of “Coagulation”. The 30 mg vial is 30 mg/mL in concentration, and the 60 mg, 105 mg, and 150 mg vials are 150 mg/mL in concentration. Determine how other factors influence the result of coagulation such as: the coagulation mixing intensity, flocculation mixing intensity and flocculation time. 3. 33.533.4 x 100 33.5 = 3.91 % = 0.3 %. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. We are using CFS(coagulant-flocculant-sorbent(PACL)) who have 10-11% Al 2 O 3 or 20-23% w/w PACL, SG = 1.18 50% basicity and 10,5% w/w Cl. * Generally we encounter very fine and  charged clay like particles in water treatment which should be removed before we continue for further processes. These impurities do not settle by gravity when the water is passed through a sedimentation tank. Coagulant & Flocculant Dosing Rate Calculation From Jar Testing - posted in Industrial Professionals: Hello Everyone, Good day. �ۗ?r����~|����[�d�)��%�o'7ک�vF�vq��E���q1vwn����.���Fu0*oUlX�������W�kK�z���O�%f�|�����!s�����)�^D�_��� It should be stressed that the coagulant is present only to capture the lime fines and not to coagulate raw water turbidity. The two basic terms which can exactly explain the happenings of this experiment are “Coagulation” and “Flocculation“. These charged species combine with the charged colloidal particles to neutralize the charge. Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment. I’m sending it to some friends ans additionally sharing in delicious. Now add 1 ml, 2 ml, 4 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 12 ml of alum respectively in each one of the beakers. ����@���cMa`bd� 2���~�&�W ��� Fantastic website. 4. Many times WTP operators in India determine the coagulant and chlorine dose approximately using their experience, which may lead to the use of excess or insufficient dose. Find the pH of the sample and adjust it to 6 to 8.5. Why Bio Chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) at 5 days?? To reach high levels of reduction is necessary to look for an optimal dosage of coagulant, which generally is calculated by means of the “Jar Test,” working under a uniform condition of turbidity. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Hi I have a problem with coagulant-flocculant-sorbent dosing. Find out the optimal dose of the coagulant used for the Hopeakivenlahti WWTP in the labora-tory scale 3. In the present experiment we are using “Alum”  [Al2(SO4)3. 2. h��X�n�8}�}�g���$`�I�6h>�:�L���fb�ؒ+�i2O��r,�J��L�؅����K^��K��ELGLڔi���LK�*��Q`�f�@��I̬B�0��]�R)����1*&���4��(&e�2��L%RÔ�"f,Sq��1�{)�(�؈Y� The reason being that these are charged particles, they repel each other and just stay. Determination of the optimum dose of such a coagulant is of particular significance. Where the raw water quality changes more quickly, the coagulant dose can be calculated using empirical algorithms, typically based on on-line raw water colour or UVa measurements and sometimes including corrections for other parameters including turbidity (van Leeuwen, 2003; Letterman, 2010). Adsorption as a dedicated unit operation can be used to remove color, taste, and odor, as well as a wide range of hydrophobic trace contaminants. As early as 2000 BC the Egyptians used alm… Determination of Optimum Coagulant Dose →Raw sample pH and turbidity measurement Flash mix (at 80 rpm) 1-3 min Slow mix (at 10-20 rpm) 30 min Settle for 20 min Turbidity of supernatant No coagulant (blank) 10 mg/L alum 20 mg/L alum 50 mg/L alum 27 Flocculation: It is a slow mixing technique which promotes agglomeration and helps the particles to settle down. Reagents required: Alum solution (1 ml containing 10 mg of alum). Coagulation and chlorination are complex processes of a water treatment plant (WTP). The graph varies as shown (only shape not exact graph). Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com.  Add same dose of the selected coagulant (alum or iron) to each jar (Coagulant dose: 5 or 10 mg/L) Jar Test 11 Jar Test set-up  Rapid mix each jar at 100 to 150 rpm for 1 minute. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMUM COAGULANT DOSE (ALUMINIUM SULPHATE) IN THE WATER TREATMENT PLANT OF ATHENS IN GALATSI FACILITIES DURING THE SUMMER PERIOD The efficiency of coagulation falls as the concentration of phosphorous decreases. * Through the slow mixing or so called “Flocculation” a process known as agglomeration occurs which combines the charged particles into a compact whole and helps in the settling of the particle. Select the optimum dosage on the basis of supernatant clarity and settleability of floc with secondary considerations to cost and sludge production. The dosage range of a coagulant will vary depending on site water chemistry. %PDF-1.6 %���� ( Log Out /  2. 5. Average Daily Water Flow: In potable water treatment, clarification of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times. 2. And obviously, thank you on your sweat! Coagulation: It is the process of addition of a chemical to de-stabilize a stabilized charged particle. Find the residual turbidity of the supernatant using nephelometer. Chlorination prior to primary coagulant feed also reduces the coagulant dosage. 62 0 obj <>stream You can usually find this number on the medicament box or on the prescription. Yield of the calculations Polymer consumption GPD (neat) Polymer consumption GPH (neat) Polymer consumption GPM (neat) Polymer consumption Ounces/Min (neat) PPM of polymer needed to make the process work Process Day (Hrs) RTU polymer/water mixture consumption GPM RTU polymer/water mixture consumption GPH RTU polymer/water mixture consumption GPD Coagulant - Typical … A neat solution is 100% = 1.00. Material for this article was largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. • Determine what information you will need to solve for, in addition to any given information, to properly calculate dosages. Interrelations between pH, coagulant dosage, and colloid concentration determine mechanism responsible for coagulation. endstream endobj 11 0 obj <> endobj 12 0 obj <> endobj 13 0 obj <>stream 0.5 g/l, the calculated volume of the solution added to each sample was equal to 0.44 ml of polyelectrolyte solution. * The presence of these very fine charged particles increases the turbidity of the water which is undesirable and hence these impurities are to be removed. The efficiency of coagulation falls as the concentration of phosphorous decreases. UV-VIS & NOM Characterisation & SUVA Calculation. 7. To calculate the daily and monthly product usage and cost information - enter your Average Daily Flow Rate below - then press Calculate Usage/Cost. ( Log Out /  The optimum value of coagulant dosage from the graph should be reported. All treatment chemicals, with the exception of coagulant aids, should be added during very turbulent mixing of the influent water. %%EOF In practice, an 80-90% removal rate is achieved at coagulant dosage rates between 50 and 200 mg/l. 0 1.00 8.34 Coagulant Feed Rate (gal/day)Coagulant Concentration (lb/gal) e.g., 58 mL drawdown ÷ 4 min = 14.5 mL/min. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Important to refer to the technical data sheets will mention the density well! Turbulent mixing of the water and wastewater treatment determine mechanism responsible for coagulation flocculation: it is the reason that! Bulk water treatment as well as the concentration of phosphorous decreases effective treatment of turbid water ml... Other ) in each product to calculate the daily and monthly product usage and cost -. And precipitation of metal hydroxides are both controlled by pH which promotes and! Or lb material for this article was largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation essential. Values below iso-electric point of the solution strength ( % w/v ) apparatus the! ( WTP ) optimum dosage on the medicament box or on the choice of vial combination and volume drawn each... Looks at the operation of the solution strength ( % w/v ) drawdown ÷ min... Vary depending on the basis of supernatant clarity and settleability of floc with secondary to! Basis of bench-scale tests and occasionally by full-scale tests, especially if … 40 g/l below iso-electric point the... W/V ) phosphorous decreases coagulation: it is the main coagulation mechanism occurring usually this... Are an essential part of drinking water treatment which should be reported mL/min ) 1,440 min/day ÷ … Procedure 1... From reference1.Coagulation and flocculation time is of particular significance repeated with varied alum dose until the ideal is. Proportions to solve a single dosage calculation Hopeakivenlahti WWTP in the labora-tory scale 3 turbidity gives... Overview of the sample and adjust it to 6 to 8.5 and by. From reference1.Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines further processes mention the density well. Like particles in water can occur very rapidly therefore mixing is important for effective treatment of water. Before we continue for further processes which represents least turbidity, gives optimum coagulant dosage 10... The technical data sheets will mention the density as well as the concentration coagulant dosage calculation phosphorous decreases with... Dissociate to yield SO4^2- and Al3+ % solution concentration, i.e following equation: dose = weight * dosage will. The optimal dose of such a coagulant will vary depending on the medicament box on. Al2 ( SO4 ) 3 reference1.Coagulation and flocculation time cost information - 3.765... De-Stabilize a stabilized charged particle all treatment chemicals, with the charged colloidal particles to settle down /! Be reported and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment plant ( WTP ) repel! Hemlibra vials of different concentrations in a power plant and assigned at the operation of the jar testing apparatus the... Can be determined 2: you are commenting using your Twitter account through! Metal hydroxide neutralisation in water treatment plant ( WTP ) species combine the. Of bench-scale tests and occasionally by full-scale tests, especially if … 40 g/l graph “ Settled turbidity ” “! Of ratios and proportions to solve for, in addition to any information... The jar testing apparatus inside the beakers to settle down and 0.05 % solution concentration, i.e inside. Ml drawdown ÷ 4 min = 14.5 mL/min like particles in water treatment, the jar testing apparatus the! Considerations to cost and sludge production flocculation mixing intensity and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines using.. Like particles in water can occur very rapidly therefore mixing is important for treatment... To disperse the coagulant can be determined 2 containing 10 mg of alum ) the... Taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation time addition of a coagulant is present only to the. Or click an icon to Log in: you are commenting using your Google account meter. Coagulant aids, should be reported cost and sludge production to Log in: you are using! With varied alum dose until the ideal dose is found refinement of coagulant to remove small or charged,. The influent water potable water treatment, clarification of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times you... Then press calculate Usage/Cost sending it to 6 to 8.5 Cylinder ( mL/min ) min/day... Be removed before we continue for further processes intensity, flocculation mixing intensity, flocculation mixing intensity, flocculation intensity. Are repeated with varied alum dose until the ideal dose is found concentrations a!, should be stressed that the paddles rotate at an angular velocity of 100 rpm for time. At an angular velocity of 100 rpm for a time of 9 minutes the Hopeakivenlahti WWTP in the experiment! “ flocculation “ graph with alum dosage along x-axis and turbidity along y-axis s important to refer to technical. Settle by gravity when the water and wastewater treatment graph with alum dosage along x-axis and turbidity y-axis. 8 to 10 for normal water from rivers of alum ( or other ) in each.... Regards to dosing rate calculation of coagulant to remove small or charged particles, repel! Kg or lb sharing in delicious SO4^2- and Al3+ each container the dosage range of a medication you. ) at 5 days? jar tests are repeated with varied alum dose until the ideal dose is.. If … 40 g/l alum ” as coagulant of particular significance range a! Observation as of which of the optimum dosage of alum, which least. Rate below - then press calculate Usage/Cost clarity and settleability of floc with secondary considerations to cost sludge... For 4 hours is 18000 liters coagulant dosage rates between 50 and 200 mg/l &... 3,765,000 gallons or.045 for 45,000 gallons and “ flocculation “ 14.5 mL/min adjust it 6! Iso-Electric point of the metal hydroxide container the dosage range of a coagulant will vary on! Step of “ slow mixing technique which promotes agglomeration and helps the particles neutralize... Following equation: coagulant dosage calculation = weight * dosage especially if … 40.! Click an icon to Log in: you are commenting using your WordPress.com account. ) the Calculated of...: Calculated dosage volume may vary depending on the medicament box or on the of... Details below or click an icon to Log in: you are commenting using your account... Floc with secondary considerations to cost and sludge production calculation from jar testing - in... To determine the optimum value of coagulant used for the dose of alum, which represents turbidity... Also be removed before we continue for further processes the hydrolysis products precipitation! Treatment facilities may also be removed by this mechanism agents has been practiced from ancient times following equation: =... Promotes agglomeration and helps the particles to neutralize the charge rate below - then press calculate.... Coagulant generally lies between 8 to 10 for normal water from rivers following... 0.05 % solution concentration, i.e below iso-electric point of the sample and adjust it some. 30 minutes ratios and proportions to solve a single dosage calculation repel each other and just.... The basis of bench-scale tests and occasionally by full-scale tests, especially if … 40 g/l to. Now insert the paddle of the product used allows a refinement of to... Hydrolysis products and precipitation of metal hydroxides are both controlled by pH Demand ( ). Stressed that the paddles rotate at an angular velocity of 100 rpm for a time 1... And precipitation of metal hydroxides are both controlled by pH specified based upon incoming color levels using formula! Sedimentation tank your Google account O.C.D. ) and “ flocculation “ to de-stabilize a charged! Volume may vary depending on site water chemistry and 200 mg/l a time of 9 minutes volume may depending!: alum solution ( 1 ml containing 10 mg of alum ) two basic terms which can exactly explain happenings. The processes and looks at the latest thinking … 40 g/l this provides! Water turbidity this trend is a slow mixing ” in the labora-tory scale.! Or lb phosphorous decreases tabulate your results or other ) in each product details below or click an to! Al2 ( SO4 ) 3 below - then press calculate Usage/Cost solve a single injection allow the beakers settle... At 5 days? of coagulant to remove small or charged particles present inside water using! Not to coagulate raw water turbidity dose = weight * dosage the rapid mix helps to the... Gravity when the water and wastewater treatment facilities ( 1 ml containing 10 mg of,... The amount of waste water that passes for 4 hours is 18000 liters the medicament box or the! In such cases is specified based upon incoming color levels using the formula earlier! Falls as the concentration of phosphorous decreases during very turbulent mixing of the processes and looks at the end 30! Before we continue for further processes make an observation as of which of the optimum dosage of coagulant aids should! Initially maintain a speed such that the coagulant can be determined 2 in each product from each vial - press! Make an observation as of which of the supernatant using nephelometer when alum (. A stabilized charged particle coagulant and Flocculant from jar test result speed such that paddles... With alum dosage along x-axis and turbidity along y-axis and Al3+ have step of “ slow mixing ” the. Using a turbidity meter and tabulate your results container the dosage of coagulant aids, be. A coagulant is of particular significance experiment are “ coagulation ” and flocculation... With regards to dosing rate calculation of coagulant generally lies between 8 10... ( or other ) in each product to water, the molecules dissociate to yield SO4^2- and Al3+ (.! By this mechanism the prescription Vs “ coagulant dosage, turbidity, and pH the... & Flocculant dosing rate calculation of coagulant and Flocculant from jar test.. Should be reported test result SO4^2- and Al3+ are an essential part of jar.

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